Friday, Sept. 18, the 262nd day of 2020. There are 104 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Sept. 18, 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, which created a force of federal commissioners charged with returning escaped slaves to their owners.

On this date:

In 1759, the French formally surrendered Quebec to the British.

In 1793, President George Washington laid the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol.

In 1927, the Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System (later CBS) made its on-air debut with a basic network of 16 radio stations.

In 1947, the National Security Act, which created a National Military Establishment and the position of Secretary of Defense, went into effect.

In 1959, during his U.S. tour, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev visited Wall Street, the Empire State Building and the grave of President Franklin D. Roosevelt; in a speech to the U.N. General Assembly, Khrushchev called on all countries to disarm.

In 1961, United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold (dahg HAWM’-ahr-shoold) was killed in a plane crash in northern Rhodesia.

In 1965, the situation comedies “I Dream of Jeannie” and “Get Smart” premiered on NBC.

In 1970, rock star Jimi Hendrix died in London at age 27.

In 1975, newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst was captured by the FBI in San Francisco, 19 months after being kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army.

In 2001, a week after the Sept. 11 attack, President George W. Bush said he hoped to “rally the world” in the battle against terrorism and predicted that all “people who love freedom” would join. Letters postmarked Trenton, N.J., that later tested positive for anthrax were sent to the New York Post and NBC anchorman Tom Brokaw.

In 2007, O.J. Simpson was charged with seven felonies, including kidnapping, in the alleged armed robbery of sports memorabilia collectors in a Las Vegas casino-hotel room. (Simpson, sentenced to nine to 33 years in prison, was released on parole in October 2017.)

In 2014, voters in Scotland rejected independence, opting to remain part of the United Kingdom in a historic referendum. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club at St. Andrews, Scotland, ended years of male-only exclusivity as its members voted overwhelmingly in favor of inviting women to join.

Ten years ago: Despite Taliban rocket strikes and bombings, Afghans voted for a new parliament in the first election since a fraud-marred ballot cast doubt on the legitimacy of the embattled government. During his visit to Britain, Pope Benedict XVI apologized to five people who’d been molested by priests as children in his latest effort to defuse the sex abuse crisis shaking the Roman Catholic Church.

Five years ago: The Environmental Protection Agency said Volkswagen had intentionally skirted clean air laws by using software that enabled about 500,000 of its diesel cars to emit fewer smog-causing pollutants during testing than in real-world driving conditions; the EPA ordered VW to fix the cars at its own expense. President Barack Obama announced he would nominate longtime Pentagon official Eric Fanning to be the Army’s new secretary; Fanning became the nation’s first openly gay leader of a military service.

One year ago: President Donald Trump named Robert O’Brien, his chief hostage negotiator, as his new national security adviser; O’Brien became the fourth person in two years to hold the job. President Donald Trump said his administration was revoking California’s authority to set auto mileage standards stricter than those issued by federal regulators; the state challenged the decision in court. Figures released by the Guttmacher Institute, a research group that supports abortion rights, showed that the number and rate of abortions across the United States had plunged to their lowest levels since the procedure became legal nationwide in 1973.

Today’s Birthdays: Singer Jimmie Rodgers is 87. Actor Robert Blake is 87. Gospel singer Bobby Jones is 82. Singer Frankie Avalon is 80. Actor Beth Grant is 71. Rock musician Kerry Livgren is 71. Actor Anna Deavere Smith is 70. The U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Ben Carson, is 69. Basketball Hall of Fame coach Rick Pitino is 68. College Football Hall of Famer and retired NFL player Billy Sims is 65. Movie director Mark Romanek is 61. Baseball Hall of Famer Ryne Sandberg is 61. Alt-country-rock musician Mark Olson is 59. Singer Joanne Catherall (Human League) is 58. Actor Holly Robinson Peete is 56. Rhythm-and-blues singer Ricky Bell (Bell Biv Devoe and New Edition) is 53. Actor Aisha Tyler is 50. Former racing cyclist Lance Armstrong is 49. Opera singer Anna Netrebko is 49. Actor Jada Pinkett Smith is 49. Actor James Marsden is 47. Actor Emily Rutherfurd is 46. Actor Travis Schuldt is 46. Rapper Xzibit is 46. Comedian-actor Jason Sudeikis is 45. Actor Sophina Brown is 44. Actor Barrett Foa is 43. Talk show host Sara Haines (TV: “GMA3: Strahan, Sara & Keke”) is 43. Actor/comedian Billy Eichner is 42. Actor Alison Lohman is 41. Designer Brandon Maxwell is 36. Congressman and former NFL player Anthony Gonzalez, R-Ohio, is 36. Actors Brandon and Taylor Porter are 27. Actor Patrick Schwarzenegger is 27. Country singer Tae Dye (Maddie and Tae) is 25. Actor C.J. Sanders is 24.

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Today is Saturday, Sept. 19, the 263rd day of 2020. There are 103 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Sept. 19, 1881, the 20th president of the United States, James A. Garfield, died 2½ months after being shot by Charles Guiteau; Chester Alan Arthur became president.

On this date:

In 1783, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier (zhahk ayt-YEHN’ mohn-gohl-fee-AY’) launched a duck, a sheep and a rooster aboard a hot-air balloon at Versailles (vehr-SY’) in France.

In 1796, President George Washington’s farewell address was published. In it, America’s first chief executive advised, “Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all.”

In 1934, Bruno Hauptmann was arrested in New York and charged with the kidnap-murder of 20-month-old Charles A. Lindbergh Jr.

In 1955, President Juan Peron of Argentina was ousted after a revolt by the army and navy.

In 1984, Britain and China completed a draft agreement on transferring Hong Kong from British to Chinese rule by 1997.

In 1985, the Mexico City area was struck by a devastating earthquake that killed at least 9,500 people.

In 1986, federal health officials announced that the experimental drug AZT would be made available to thousands of AIDS patients.

In 1995, The New York Times and The Washington Post published the manifesto of Unabomber Ted Kaczynski (kah-ZIHN’-skee), which proved instrumental in identifying and capturing him.

In 1996, IBM announced it would extend health benefits to the partners of its gay employees.

In 2001, The Pentagon ordered dozens of advanced aircraft to the Persian Gulf region as the hour of military retaliation for deadly terrorist attacks on Sept. 11 drew closer.

In 2004, Hu Jintao (hoo jin-tow) became the undisputed leader of China with the departure of former President Jiang Zemin (jahng zuh-MEEN’) from his top military post.

In 2008, struggling to stave off financial catastrophe, the Bush administration laid out a radical bailout plan calling for a takeover of a half-trillion dollars or more in worthless mortgages and other bad debt held by tottering institutions. Relieved investors sent stocks soaring on Wall Street and around the globe.

Ten years ago: The BP oil well at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico was declared “effectively dead” by retired Coast Guard Adm. Thad Allen, the government’s point man on the blowout disaster, after it was sealed with a permanent cement plug. On the final day of his four-day visit to Britain, Pope Benedict XVI celebrated Mass to beatify Cardinal John Henry Newman, the 19th century Anglican convert.

Five years ago: Pope Francis, arriving in Havana, hailed detente between Cuba and the United States as a model of reconciliation for the world as he launched a 10-day tour of the former Cold War foes. President Barack Obama paid tribute to Black women for their role in helping shape American democracy as he delivered the keynote address to the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation’s annual awards dinner. Jackie Collins, 77, the bestselling author of dozens of novels including “Hollywood Wives,” died in Los Angeles.

One year ago: Under orders from the Trump administration, the intelligence community’s inspector general refused to tell members of a House panel what was in a whistleblower’s complaint about a private conversation between President Donald Trump and Ukraine’s president. Trump began responding to published reports about the phone call, tweeting that he would never “say something inappropriate with a foreign leader while on such a potentially ‘heavily populated’ call,” and that he would only “do what is right anyway.” As the U.S. and Saudi Arabia considered a response to a drone-and-missile strike on the Saudi oil industry, Iran’s top diplomat warned that an attack by either country would bring “all-out war.” New York Yankees pitcher Domingo Germán was put on administrative leave as Major League Baseball investigated an alleged domestic violence incident involving his girlfriend. (The pitcher would miss the rest of the season as part of a suspension that would also cover all of the abbreviated 2020 season.)

Today’s Birthdays: Author Roger Angell is 100. Actor Rosemary Harris is 93. Actor David McCallum is 87. Singer-songwriter Paul Williams is 80. Singer Bill Medley is 80. Singer Sylvia Tyson (Ian and Sylvia) is 80. R&B singer Freda Payne is 78. Retired professional golfer Jane Blalock is 75. Singer David Bromberg is 75. Actor Randolph Mantooth is 75. Rock singer-musician Lol Creme (10cc) is 73. Former NFL running back Larry Brown is 73. Actor Jeremy Irons is 72. Actor Twiggy Lawson is 71. TV personality Joan Lunden is 70. Singer-producer Daniel Lanois (lan-WAH’) is 69. Actor Scott Colomby is 68. Musician-producer Nile Rodgers is 68. Singer-actor Rex Smith is 65. Rock singer Lita Ford is 62. Actor Kevin Hooks is 62. Actor Carolyn McCormick is 61. Celebrity chef Mario Batali is 60. Actor-comedian Cheri Oteri is 58. Country singer Jeff Bates is 57. Country singer Trisha Yearwood is 56. News anchor Soledad O’Brien is 54. Celebrity chef Michael Symon is 51. Actor Victor Williams is 50. Actor Sanaa Lathan (suh-NAH’ LAY’-thun) is 49. Actor Stephanie J. Block is 48. Rock singer A. Jay Popoff (Lit) is 47. “Tonight Show” host Jimmy Fallon is 46. TV personality Carter Oosterhouse is 44. Actor-TV host Alison Sweeney is 44. Rock musician Ryan Dusick is 43. Folk-rock singers-musicians Sara and Tegan (TEE’-gan) Quin are 40. Actor Columbus Short is 38. Rapper Eamon is 37. Actor Kevin Zegers is 36. Actor Danielle Panabaker is 33. Actor Katrina Bowden is 32.

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