Friday, Aug. 9, the 221st day of 2019. There are 144 days left in the year.

Today's Highlight in History:

On August 9, 1945, three days after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, a U.S. B-29 Superfortress code-named Bockscar dropped a nuclear device ("Fat Man") over Nagasaki, killing an estimated 74,000 people.

On this date:

In 1854, Henry David Thoreau's "Walden," which described Thoreau's experiences while living near Walden Pond in Massachusetts, was first published.

In 1902, Edward VII was crowned king of Britain following the death of his mother, Queen Victoria.

In 1910, the U.S. Patent Office granted Alva J. Fisher of the Hurley Machine Co. a patent for an electrically powered washing machine.

In 1936, Jesse Owens won his fourth gold medal at the Berlin Olympics as the United States took first place in the 400-meter relay.

In 1944, 258 African-American sailors based at Port Chicago, California, refused to load a munitions ship following a cargo vessel explosion that killed 320 men, many of them black. (Fifty of the sailors were convicted of mutiny, fined and imprisoned.)

In 1969, actress Sharon Tate and four other people were found brutally slain at Tate's Los Angeles home; cult leader Charles Manson and a group of his followers were later convicted of the crime.

In 1974, Vice President Gerald R. Ford became the nation's 38th chief executive as President Richard Nixon's resignation took effect.

In 1982, a federal judge in Washington ordered John W. Hinckley Jr., who'd been acquitted of shooting President Ronald Reagan and three others by reason of insanity, committed to a mental hospital.

In 1985, a federal judge in Norfolk, Virginia, found retired Navy officer Arthur J. Walker guilty of seven counts of spying for the Soviet Union. (Walker, who was sentenced to life, died in prison in 2014 at the age of 79.)

In 1988, President Ronald Reagan nominated Lauro Cavazos (kah-VAH'-zohs) to be secretary of education; Cavazos became the first Hispanic to serve in the Cabinet.

In 1995, Jerry Garcia, lead singer of the Grateful Dead, died in Forest Knolls, California, of a heart attack at age 53.

In 2004, Oklahoma City bombing conspirator Terry Nichols, addressing a court for the first time, asked victims of the blast for forgiveness as a judge sentenced him to 161 consecutive life sentences.

Ten years ago: President Barack Obama flew to Guadalajara, Mexico, for a two-day speed summit with Mexican President Felipe Calderon (fay-LEE'-pay kahl-duh-ROHN') and Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper. Iraqi authorities arrested British contractor Danny Fitzsimons in the shooting deaths of two co-workers in Baghdad's protected Green Zone. (Fitzsimons was convicted by an Iraqi court in 2011 and sentenced to 20 years in prison.)

Five years ago: Michael Brown Jr., an unarmed 18-year-old black man, was shot to death by a police officer following an altercation in Ferguson, Missouri; Brown's death led to sometimes-violent protests in Ferguson and other U.S. cities, spawning a national "Black Lives Matter" movement.

One year ago: Vice President Mike Pence announced plans for a new, separate U.S. Space Force as a sixth military service by 2020. The parents of first lady Melania Trump were sworn in as U.S. citizens; they had been living in the country as permanent residents. Player demonstrations again took place at several early NFL preseason games, with two Philadelphia Eagles players raising their fists during the national anthem. Evacuation orders expanded to 20,000 as a wildfire that had been intentionally set moved perilously close to homes in Southern California.

Today's Birthdays: Basketball Hall of Famer Bob Cousy is 91. Actress Cynthia Harris is 85. Tennis Hall of Famer Rod Laver is 81. Jazz musician Jack DeJohnette is 77. Comedian-director David Steinberg is 77. Actor Sam Elliott is 75. Singer Barbara Mason is 72. College Football Hall of Famer and former NFL player John Cappelletti is 67. College Football Hall of Famer and former NFL player Doug Williams is 64. Actress Melanie Griffith is 62. Actress Amanda Bearse is 61. Rapper Kurtis Blow is 60. Hockey Hall of Famer Brett Hull is 55. TV host Hoda Kotb (HOH'-duh KAHT'-bee) is 55. Actor Pat Petersen is 53. Pro and College Football Hall of Famer Deion Sanders is 52. Actress Gillian Anderson is 51. Actor Eric Bana is 51. Producer-director McG (aka Joseph McGinty Nichol) is 51. NHL player-turned-coach Rod Brind'Amour is 49. TV anchor Chris Cuomo is 49. Actor Thomas Lennon is 49. Rock musician Arion Salazar is 49. Rapper Mack 10 is 48. Actress Nikki Schieler Ziering is 48. Latin rock singer Juanes is 47. Actress Liz Vassey is 47. Actor Kevin McKidd is 46. Actress Rhona Mitra (ROH'-nuh MEE'-truh) is 44. Actor Texas Battle is 43. Actress Jessica Capshaw is 43. Actress Ashley Johnson is 36. Actress Anna Kendrick is 34.

Thought for Today: "Education is a private matter between the person and the world of knowledge and experience, and has little to do with school or college." — Lillian Smith, American writer-social critic (1897-1966).

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Today is Saturday, Aug. 10, the 222nd day of 2019. There are 143 days left in the year.

Today's Highlight in History:

On August 10, 1993, Ruth Bader Ginsburg was sworn in as the second female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.

On this date:

In 1861, Confederate forces routed Union troops in the Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri, the first major engagement of the Civil War west of the Mississippi River.

In 1921, Franklin D. Roosevelt was stricken with polio at his summer home on the Canadian island of Campobello.

In 1944, during World War II, American forces overcame remaining Japanese resistance on Guam.

In 1945, a day after the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Imperial Japan conveyed its willingness to surrender provided the status of Emperor Hirohito remained unchanged. (The Allies responded the next day, saying they would determine the Emperor's future status.)

In 1969, Leno and Rosemary LaBianca were murdered in their Los Angeles home by members of Charles Manson's cult, one day after actress Sharon Tate and four other people were slain.

In 1975, television personality David Frost announced he had purchased the exclusive rights to interview former President Richard Nixon.

In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed a measure providing $20,000 payments to still-living Japanese-Americans who were interned by their government during World War II.

In 1991, nine Buddhists were found slain at their temple outside Phoenix, Arizona. (Two teen-agers were later arrested; one was sentenced to life in prison, while the other received 281 years.)

In 1995, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were charged with 11 counts in the Oklahoma City bombing (McVeigh was convicted of murder and executed; Nichols was convicted of conspiracy and involuntary manslaughter and sentenced to life in prison). Norma McCorvey, "Jane Roe" of the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, announced she had joined the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue.

In 2004, a boat carrying Dominican migrants seeking a better life in Puerto Rico drifted back to almost the same spot where the voyage began nearly two weeks earlier; at least 55 of the 86 people on board had died.

In 2006, British authorities announced they had thwarted a terrorist plot to simultaneously blow up 10 aircraft heading to the U.S. using explosives smuggled in hand luggage.

In 2008, at the Beijing Olympics, Michael Phelps began his long march toward eight gold medals by winning the 400-meter individual medley in 4:03.84 — smashing his own world record. Soul crooner Isaac Hayes, 65, died in Memphis, Tennessee.

Ten years ago: A double truck bombing tore through the village of a small Shiite ethnic minority near Mosul, Iraq, killing at least 28 people. Country duo Kix Brooks and Ronnie Dunn posted a message on their Web site announcing they had agreed to "call it a day" after 20 years of making music together.

Five years ago: Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Malaki resisted calls for his resignation and accused the country's new president, Fouad Massoum, of violating the constitution (al-Maliki stepped down three days later). Rory McIlroy won his second straight major championship and fourth of his young career, rallying on the back nine in the PGA Championship in Louisville, Kentucky.

One year ago: Richard Russell, a 29-year-old airline ground agent, stole a commercial plane from Sea-Tac International Airport near Seattle; he flew for 75 minutes, performing dangerous stunts while being chased by military jets before crashing into a remote island in Puget Sound, killing himself.

Today's Birthdays: Actress Rhonda Fleming is 96. Singer Ronnie Spector is 76. Actor James Reynolds is 73. Rock singer-musician Ian Anderson (Jethro Tull) is 72. Country musician Gene Johnson (Diamond Rio) is 70. Singer Patti Austin is 69. Actor Daniel Hugh Kelly is 67. Folk singer-songwriter Sam Baker is 65. Actress Rosanna Arquette is 60. Actor Antonio Banderas is 59. Rock musician Jon Farriss (INXS) is 58. Singer Julia Fordham is 57. Journalist-blogger Andrew Sullivan is 56. Actor Chris Caldovino is 56. Singer Neneh Cherry is 55. Singer Aaron Hall is 55. Boxer Riddick Bowe is 52. Actor Sean Blakemore is 52. Rhythm-and-blues singer Lorraine Pearson (Five Star) is 52. Singer-producer Michael Bivins is 51. Actor-writer Justin Theroux is 48. Actress Angie Harmon is 47. Country singer Jennifer Hanson is 46. Actor-turned-lawyer Craig Kirkwood is 45. Actress JoAnna Garcia Swisher is 40. Singer Cary Ann Hearst (Shovels & Rope) is 40. Rhythm-and-blues singer Nikki Bratcher (Divine) is 39. Actor Aaron Staton is 39. Actor Ryan Eggold is 35. Actor Charley Koontz is 32. Actor Lucas Till is 29. Reality TV star Kylie Jenner is 22. Actor Jeremy Maguire is 8.

Thought for Today: "A man may fulfill the object of his existence by asking a question he cannot answer, and attempting a task he cannot achieve." — Oliver Wendell Holmes, American author (1809-1894).

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